Spinoza’s POLITICAL TREATISE - Baruch Spinoza - Dutch Philosopher ( 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677 ) Through the millennia the idea of self rule, free will, goes back to the garden of Eden and the choices made by Eve and Adam. It actually started with the individual known as Satan. It continues to this period of time. Most men are at heart individualistic rebels against law or custom: the social instincts are later and weaker than the individualistic, and need reinforcement; man is not “good by nature,” Durant, Will (2014-02-06). The Story of Philosophy (pp. 81-82). . Kindle Edition. Democracy is the most reasonable form of government; for in it “everyone submits to the control of authority over his actions, but not over his judgment and reason; i.e., seeing that all cannot think alike, the voice of the majority has the force of law.” The military basis of this democracy should be universal military service, the citizens retaining their arms during peace; its fiscal basis should be the single tax. The defect of democracy is its tendency to put mediocrity into power; and there is no way of avoiding this except by limiting office to men of “trained skill.” Numbers by themselves cannot produce wisdom, and may give the best favors of office to the grossest flatterers. “The fickle disposition of the multitude almost reduces those who have experience of it to despair; for it is governed solely by emotions, and not by reason.” Thus democratic government becomes a procession of brief-lived demagogues, and men of worth are loath to enter lists where they must be judged and rated by their inferiors. Sooner or later the more capable men rebel against such a system, though they be in a minority. “Hence I think it is that democracies change into aristocracies, and these at length into monarchies”; people at last prefer tyranny to chaos. Equality of power is an unstable condition; men are by nature unequal; and “he who seeks equality between unequal’s seeks an absurdity.” Durant, Will (2014-02-06). The Story of Philosophy (p. 83). . Kindle Edition. It appears that the state of democracy in the United States of America has reached the point of aristocracy, due to the selection by their inferiors. Demagogue = a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people.