Word Lessons - Their true meaning

Discussion in 'General Discussions' started by Tsaphah, Apr 19, 2014.

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    Tsaphah

    Tsaphah Experienced Member

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    “Technology is blamed for a lot of this loneliness, since the loneliness is certainly associated with the newer technological devices— TV, jets, freeways and so on— but I hope it’s been made plain that the real evil isn’t the objects of technology but the tendency of technology to isolate people into lonely attitudes of objectivity. And I think it’s about time to return to the rebuilding of this American resource — individual worth. There are political reactionaries who’ve been saying something close to this for years. I’m not one of them, but to the extent they’re talking about real individual worth and not just an excuse for giving more money to the rich, they’re right. We do need a return to individual integrity, self-reliance and old-fashioned gumption.†- Robert Pirsig, (Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. 1974) I forgot to add, this was before the internet and mobile devices. What he says is more important today.

    To think that this was recognized back in the 1970’s is not surprising. At least, not among persons like Pirsig. Along those same lines of thought, are the underlying philosophical teachings, that historically reach back in time to ancient Babylon. We can follow the word, philosophy, to it’s beginning and meaning.

    philosophy (n.)
    c.1300, "knowledge, body of knowledge," from Old French filosofie "philosophy, knowledge" (12c., Modern French philosophie) and directly from Latin philosophia and from Greek philosophia "love of knowledge, pursuit of wisdom; systematic investigation," from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" of unknown origin. [*Not really, see Sophist below]

    Nec quicquam aliud est philosophia, si interpretari velis, praeter studium sapientiae; sapientia autem est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque quibus eae res continentur scientia. [Cicero, "De Officiis"] (from Online Etymology Dictionary)

    [Translation to English = “Nor does any other thing belong to philosophy, if you wish to interpret, in addition to the study of wisdom; wisdom is the knowledge of things of divine and human causes by which those things are controlled.†[Cicero, “Dutiesâ€] ]

    [Philosophical problems] are, of course, not empirical problems; but they are solved through an insight into the workings of our language, and that in such a way that these workings are recognized -- despite an urge to misunderstand them. The problems are solved, not through the contribution of new knowledge, rather through the arrangement of things long familiar. Philosophy is a struggle against the bewitchment (Verhexung) of our understanding by the resources of our language. [Ludwig Wittgenstein, "Philosophical Investigations," 1953]

    Meaning "system a person forms for conduct of life" is attested from 1771.
    (from Online Etymology Dictionary)

    sophist (n.)
    "one who makes use of fallacious arguments," mid-15c., earlier sophister (late 14c.), from Latin sophista, sophistes, from Greek sophistes "a master of one's craft; a wise or prudent man, one clever in matters of daily life," from sophizesthai "to become wise or learned," from sophos "skilled in a handicraft, cunning in one's craft; clever in matters of everyday life, shrewd; skilled in the sciences, learned; clever; too clever," of unknown origin. Greek sophistes came to mean "one who gives intellectual instruction for pay," and at Athens, contrasted with "philosopher," it became a term of contempt.
    Sophists taught before the development of logic and grammar, when skill in reasoning and in disputation could not be accurately distinguished, and thus they came to attach great value to quibbles, which soon brought them into contempt. [Century Dictionary] (from Online Etymology Dictionary)

    This root word, sophos, is used throughout the New Testament/Greek Scriptures of the Bible.
    “At that time Jesus said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this is what you were pleased to do.†(Mt. 11:25-26 NIV)

    The apostle Paul, a well educated man, who was taught by the Pharisees, in Greek philosophy, used this word in speaking to the Greek Corinthians. He quoted from the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament/Hebrew Scriptures, from the book of Isaiah 29:14, “For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise; the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate.†(1 Co. 1:19 NIV) “Therefore once more I will astound these people with wonder upon wonder; the wisdom of the wise will perish, the intelligence of the intelligent will vanish.†(Isa. 29:14 NIV) In Hebrew, the word translated into English is, chakam, with the same meaning as described above.

    There is also a related word in Aramaic, chakklym, used in the book of Daniel, “Because of this the king became indignant and very furious and gave orders to destroy all the wise men of Babylon.†(Dan. 2:12 NASB ) What lead up to this was due to the dream that the king of Babylon had, and the “wise menâ€/sophists could not tell him what his dream was. These men were what are today called advisors. The shrewd manipulators of words and ideas. The men spoken of by the apostle Paul, to Timothy, “. . . He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, . . .†Paul was speaking of rhetoric, used by sophists. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophists and http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/554705/Sophist/68427/Nature-of-Sophistic-thought

    These teachings lead us to another word and subject that are closely related, Areté. This becomes more interesting through the meaning of the word and where it comes from.
    areté (n.2) [pronounced ar-et’-ay]
    important concept in Greek philosophy, "virtue, excellence," especially of manly qualities; literally "that which is good." The comparative form is areion, the superlative is aristos (compare aristocracy). (from Online Etymology Dictionary) Also go to:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arete

    “For this very reason, make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue, and virtue with knowledge,. . .†(2 Pet. 1:5 ESV) The Greek word arete is translated here as virtue. The sophists/philosophers have twisted the true meaning today. This again leads us to the other word related to areté, which is aristocracy.
    aristocracy (n.)
    1560s, from Middle French aristocracie (Modern French aristocratie), from Late Latin aristocratia, from Greek aristokratia "government or rule of the best," from aristos "best" (originally "most fitting," from PIE *ar-isto-, superlative form of *ar- "to fit together;" see arm (n.1)) + kratos "rule, power" (see -cracy).

    At first in a literal sense of "government by those who are the best citizens;" meaning "rule by a privileged class" (best-born or best-favored by fortune) is from 1570s and became paramount 17c. Hence, the meaning "patrician order" (1650s). In early use contrasted with monarchy; after French and American revolutions, with democracy.

    (from Online Etymology Dictionary)


     
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    what can we expect? the true meaning of technology is to study technos.... sutech.. the Egyptian dog faced god of death also know to give strange knowledge of how to make machines. its a true fact that they found spark plugs very much like today's spark plugs but like 3800 years old! you have got to Google ancient spark plugs found! it appears thas Noah had advanced machines and the ability to make laminated pressure treated beams and ancient civilizations weren't primitive at all.and this ancient original language is just know being found to be way more than communications the strange legends of wizards and magical words may actually be an advanced scientific language passed on to man from Jehovah that carried an actual physical effect when spoken.its speculation that gods true name is hidden because it holds power just to speak it. but yes words have great power and the bible make that clear...
     
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    Tsaphah

    Tsaphah Experienced Member

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    Here is a paper that I wrote a few years ago. You've heard the "Pledge of Allegiance" in the USA. I had a problem with it when in 3rd grade Social Studies because of the way it ends. "One nation under God, with liberty and justice for all." I told the teacher that it did not have "liberty and justice for all." He told me that I was right and the people deserved the government they choose. That thought has stuck with me all this time. So, I do know who that God is that the nation is under. (Lu 4:5-6)

    Democracy

    This time of year, this year, (11-2-2012) especially in the United States, the elections of new leaders are supposedly selected by the “peopleâ€￾. It is part of the so-called “democraticâ€￾ process. The so-called form of government of the United States is democracy. I say “so-calledâ€￾ because it really isn’t a democracy. If anything, it has always been a republic, representative government. The word democracy is rather interesting, because the majority of people who participate, in this system, don’t truly understand the word or it’s origin. It goes back at least 5,000 years or so.

    Near the end of this article, you will see the importance of understanding the true meaning. Let’s follow it back in time, it is quite a journey. We will be using the Online Etymology Dictionary. The OED uses abbreviations such as M.Fr., which = Middle French, M.L. = Middle Latin, Gk. = Greek. It also uses c. = Circa = about (especially used with dates), or (14c. = 14th century) And, PIE = Proto Indo European, which comes from the ancient Sanskrit.

    Most people do not understand the dating system of 14c, 13c, etc. The 14th century is the years 1300 to 1399. The 13th century is the years 1200 to 1299, etc. The first century did not have a year 0. It started with 1 and ran to 99. That is why these years that started in 2000 are said to be the 21st century.

    We will start with democracy. 1570s, from M.Fr. démocratie (14c.), from M.L. democratia (13c.), from Gk. demokratia "popular government," from demos "common people," originally "district" (see demotic), + kratos "rule, strength" (see -cracy).

    “Democracy implies that the man must take the responsibility for choosing his rulers and representatives, and for the maintenance of his own 'rights' against the possible and probable encroachments of the government which he has sanctioned to act for him in public matters.â€￾ [Ezra Pound, “ABC of Economics,â€￾ 1933]

    demotic 1822, from Gk. demotikos “of or for the common people, in common use,â€￾ from demos “common people,â€￾ originally “district,â€￾ from PIE *da-mo- “division,â€￾ from root *da- “to divideâ€￾ (see tide). In contrast to hieratic. Originally of the simpler of two forms of ancient Egyptian writing; broader sense is from 1831; used of Greek since 1927.

    tide (n.) O.E. tid “point or portion of time, due time,â€￾ from P.Gmc. *tidiz “division of timeâ€￾ (cf. O.S. tid, Du. tijd, O.H.G. zit, Ger. Zeit “timeâ€￾), from PIE *di-ti- “division, division of time,â€￾ suffixed form of root *da- “to divide, cut upâ€￾ (cf. Skt. dati “cuts, divides;â€￾ Gk. demos “people, land,â€￾ perhaps lit. “division of society;â€￾ daiesthai “to divide;â€￾ O.Ir. dam “troop, companyâ€￾).

    Meaning “rise and fall of the seaâ€￾ (mid-14c.) is probably via notion of “fixed time,â€￾ specifically “time of high water;â€￾ either a native evolution or from M.L.G. getide (cf. also Du. tij, Ger. Gezeiten “flood tideâ€￾). Old English seems to have had no specific word for this, using flod and ebba to refer to the rise and fall. O.E. heahtid “high tideâ€￾ meant “festival, high day.â€￾

    This leads to: demon c.1200, from L. daemon “spirit,â€￾ from Gk. daimon “deity, divine power; lesser god; guiding spirit, tutelary deityâ€￾ (sometimes including souls of the dead); “one's genius, lot, or fortune;’ from PIE *dai-mon- ‘divider, provider’ (of fortunes or destinies), from root *da- ‘to divide’ (see tide). Used (with daimonion) in Christian Greek translations and Vulgate for ‘god of the heathen’ and ‘unclean spirit.’ Jewish authors earlier had employed the Greek word in this sense, using it to render shedim ‘lords, idols’ in the Septuagint, and Matt. viii:31 has daimones, translated as deofol in O.E., feend or deuil in Middle English. Another O.E. word for this was hellcniht, lit. ‘hell-knight.’ The original mythological sense is sometimes written daemon for purposes of distinction. The Demon of Socrates was a daimonion, a ‘divine principle or inward oracle.’ His accusers, and later the Church Fathers, however, represented this otherwise.

    Where are we going with this? Let’s go to the book of Luke in the Bible. In the 4th chapter, Jesus is lead into the wilderness for 40 days and nights to be tempted by Satan (not a noun, but verb), meaning ‘to be or act as an adversary, resist, oppose, to accuse. He is also referred to as devil [diabolos] (also a verb) meaning to ruin, destroy, prone to slander, slanderous. He is chief of the demons [daimons]. His purpose as mentioned in the name is to destroy, resist, and divide. The New International Version translates this as: ‘‘The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. And he said to him, ‘I will give you all their authority and splendor, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. So if you worship me, it will all be yours.’’ (Lu. 4:5-7 NIV 1984)

    Draw your own conclusions. Democracy is a delusion, given to people to believe they can govern themselves. It all goes back to the original lie that Satan used to deceive Eve. ‘For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.’ (Ge. 3:4 NIV 1984) Also read 2 Thes. 2:8-12. The results are mentioned there. “And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destroy by the splendor of his coming. The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with how Satan works. He will use all sorts of displays of power through signs and wonders that serve the lie, and all the ways that wickedness deceives those who are perishing. They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. For this reason God sends them a powerful delusion so that they will believe the lie and so that all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness.â€￾

    And so today, where do those who rule get their power to rule? They are either knowingly or unknowingly worshiping this creature who is a deceiver and slanderer. We live in the ‘Evil Empire’.

    Take the ancient advice, “My son, fear the Lord and the king; Do not associate with those who are given to change, For their calamity will rise suddenly, And who knows the ruin that comes from both of them?â€￾ (Pr 24:21-22 NASB) “For they will drink and forget what is decreed, And pervert the rights of all the afflicted.â€￾ (Pr 31:5 NASB)
     
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    Utuna

    Utuna Administrator

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    What is reading... for real !?!?!?

    A few years ago, I worked as a school overseer for a long while. One day, I was overseeing the punished ones and, being so notoriously a tiresome person, I tried to help the pupils who had to do their homeworks. I tried and helped a young girl who was about 14-15 yo reading a simple 20 lines paragraph.....

    I asked her: "Please read it and tell me that this paragraph is talking about".... She couldn't. "Please, read it again aloud, loud and clear...." :(

    That girl was reading a paragraph out loud and was yet unable to tell me what the paragraph was all about... :confused::( Many people don't understand at all what a simple text explains and many more only understand what they think it says (projection of feelings and preconceived ideas, etc). There is definitely a difference between what people read and what is written. That's impressive whenever we notice it ! By experience, I've noticed that people don't read what is really written. They just project their feelings and preconceived ideas onto the written text, no matter what the latter may contain. At times, they see one word and/or expression and it all makes their day ! The meaning of a whole paragraph is suddenly changed because of that word even if the context tells things totally different from what they affirm.

    Source

    Reading matters: What is reading?

    This is the first in a series of articles looking at various aspects of teaching reading. The first article takes a look at what we actually mean by reading and whether or not it can be taught or just practised.

    Anchor Point:1

    Introduction


    Reading in the EFL classroom takes many forms, but is often used as a way of introducing grammar or vocabulary items. The ‘teaching’ of reading has found its way into many classes, but often just in terms of teaching (or practising) techniques such as skimming and scanning. In some classes students are asked to read out loud, turning what is fundamentally a private receptive activity into a more public and production-orientated activity. This type of reading is often decried as not being realistic (i.e. not what we do in real life). However, that isn’t really the case as there are often instances in real life when we read things out to each other (bedtime reading to children, reading a short article out at the breakfast table, reading a menu at a restaurant – for example, when we find something interesting or when we want to discuss what we might eat or drink).

    Another thing we must remember is that many people claim that they do not read much in their own language. In fact this isn’t really the case. It’s simply that most people equate reading with reading novels and long texts, whereas we spend a lot of time reading in our L1 (first language) – we read instructions, recipes, messages (especially text messages), emails, information about what’s on TV, etc.

    So, for whatever reason and in whatever way we ‘do’ reading in the class, reading is not uncommon. But what exactly is reading?

    [HR][/HR]
    Anchor Point:2

    What is reading?


    At the most basic level reading is the recognition of words. From simple recognition of the individual letters and how these letters form a particular word to what each word means not just on an individual level, but as part of a text. In English, as in many other languages, different combinations of the same letters can be used to form different words with completely different meanings. So, the letters t c a, can make cat (an animal that goes miaow), and act (which has a number of meanings from do something to behave in certain ways, to perform in a play or film). Recognition of the actual word is not enough on its own to constitute reading.

    Understanding what we are reading is key and is certainly the main point of teaching reading in a class. It’s not much good if our students simply stare at a text and say ‘Well, I don’t understand it, but it looks nice!’ However, understanding a text is quite a complex issue and something that we will try and examine in the rest of this article.

    [HR][/HR]
    Anchor Point:3

    Why do we read?


    There are a number of reasons why we read and this will often influence what we read and how we read it. We might read for pleasure. In this case it is most likely that we will be reading a book of some sort, maybe a novel, or perhaps a poem. We could also be reading the lyrics to a song and our reasons for reading it may be slightly more complex than simply for pleasure. We could be reading it because we have heard the song, but didn’t quite catch the words. Or perhaps our children are listening to it, but we are worried that some of the lyrics might not be suitable. Or perhaps we want to be able to sing along and so we’re trying to learn the words (maybe so we can impress our friends).

    In other words, there might be multiple reasons why someone might read a text. But working out the purpose is a key factor when it comes to teaching reading. Why we are reading something will make a difference to how we read it, and in what depth. So, a mother checking whether the lyrics of a song are suitable for her children to hear will most likely be looking through the text for particular words or phrases she thinks are inappropriate. On the other hand, someone trying to learn the lyrics by heart will probably read the same lines a number of times (and may even read them out loud to try and reinforce the words).

    We must also bear in mind the purpose of the text from the writer’s point of view. Texts don’t exist in a vacuum; somebody wrote the text and they had a reason for doing so. It could be that the writer’s and the reader’s reasons are the same, or similar. But it is equally possible that the two have different purposes. The writer has a message they want to convey and they encode this message in the words and style they choose. The reader then tries to decode the message by reading the same words. This encoding and decoding doesn’t simply exist on the level of meaning, but also on the level of why the text was written.

    [HR][/HR]
    Anchor Point:4

    Does reading in a foreign language differ from L1 reading?


    At first glance the question seems rather silly. Of course reading isn’t different, whatever language you are reading in. The text might be written using a different alphabet or characters, it might be written from right to left, or bottom to top, but fundamentally the same processes are going on. Well, at one level this is certainly true, but it may well be that we are not really conscious or aware of how we are reading in our own language. Reading was a skill we developed as we grew up and as we became acquainted with different types of text. Once we start seeing these texts in a foreign language we are unable to decode the message. The problem is probably not that we are not using the correct techniques, but that we are unable to recognise the words and meaning. This causes us a big problem.

    The problem is that we begin to panic. We start to try and use different techniques and strategies to understand the text. We start to read every word in a way that we wouldn’t if the text was in our L1. We start to focus on aspects of the text, such as grammatical construction, something we probably wouldn’t do if it was in our L1. By doing this we find reading difficult and we become frustrated. So, it might not be that reading is inherently different between L1 and L2, but that doesn’t negate the fact that we probably have to teach (and relearn) all the strategies we already employ when reading a text in L1.

    [HR][/HR]
    Anchor Point:5

    How does all this impact on our classroom teaching?

    When we are teaching reading in class we have to begin by asking ourselves a series of questions in order to make the lesson as effective as possible. It is not good enough to just hand the students a text with a set of questions, ask them to read the text and answer the questions and think that we are actually teaching them something. Any learning that takes place in such a lesson will be incidental and not because of the teaching.

    So, planning our reading lessons is essential, and we need to make sure that our aims are clear and that the text and tasks are appropriate. In many cases we can relate our questions to what we do in real life with the type of text we choose. In other words, what do we read in real-life situations? Why do we read these texts? What is the purpose of the writer and of the reader (us in this case)? How do we read the text in order to get what we need from it?

    Let’s have a look at a couple of examples.

    A timetable:

    • Who wrote the text? Someone who had the information and wants us to know certain information, such as times, in order to allow us to travel.
    • What is the purpose of the text? To give (travel) information, e.g. times, places etc.
    • How do we read the text? We probably scan through it looking for specific information which is predetermined, i.e. I’m in X. I want to go to Y. I want to leave at W and/or I want to arrive at Z.
    So when we teach how to read the text in class we want to try and replicate as much of the real situation as possible. Firstly we need to give the students information as to where they are, what their destination is, etc. We may also want to focus their attention on the context and we could use a short listening text where someone is doing exactly what they will do – trying to find their train. Finally, we can give them a copy of the timetable and a short time limit in which to find the relevant information.

    A postcard from a friend:

    • Who wrote the text? A friend.
    • Why did they write it? To say where they were and tell us a little bit about their holiday.
    • Why are we reading it? Because we want to know how they are.
    • How do we read it? Quickly at first. We almost certainly predict words before we read them, especially as there are some conventions to a postcard. For example, We’re having a … As we read the stem sentence we start to predict the end and we’re likely to choose wonderful time or lovely time or something similar. If our friend has written terrible time then we almost certainly reread it as it doesn’t conform to our expectations.
    The way we read the texts is different because the purpose is different. The strategies we employ are designed to get the information we want from the text in the most effective way. It is not simply a matter of skimming or scanning, but a set of far more complex things. For the timetable we are using some top-down strategies. We know where we are, where we want to go and when. We’re not really trying to find out any new information, but simply trying to confirm whether what we want to do is possible. On the other hand, in the second text we may know our friend has gone on holiday and we may even know where, but hopefully the rest of the information is new to us – although not too full of surprises (and fitting the conventions expected).

    Therefore, in the classroom, we need to mirror these real-life texts and strategies. We need to help our students use the right approaches to reading even if the language is new or difficult. To do this we need to ask questions and promote awareness, and not simply employ basic comprehension questions that often focus on language rather than on the skill of reading.

    [HR][/HR]
    Anchor Point:6

    Some practical ideas


    1. What’s the word?


    Choose a text (it doesn’t have to be long) and copy it out onto an OHT. Either blank out the words you want students to predict by covering them with pieces of paper or type it out so the words you want your students to guess always begin a line, so you can reveal the text line by line. Display the text and have students read it and predict the words. They can do this either by writing the words down, whispering them to a partner, or shouting out their guesses. After each guess, reveal the correct word. There is no need to check how many students got it right as you will be able to see by their reactions.

    Rationale: As we saw in the example of the postcard, predicting the next word or phrase is a typical strategy employed when we read certain texts. In many cases, when students are reading a foreign language, they stop predicting and start reading every word and this slows them down. Developing predicting skills enables students to become more confident in their ability to read.

    2. What does it mean?

    Choose a text (this could be one from the coursebook). Type it out but change some of the words into nonsense words. Ask students to read the text and work out the meaning of the nonsense words. They might want to start by working out what part of speech the words are – noun, verb, adjective, preposition, etc. Then, rereading the line around the word, they try and work out the context.

    You can do this type of exercise with a complete nonsense text, for example a poem like Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll. Give students the first verse of the poem and ask them to read it. Then ask them the following questions:

    What were the toves like? (Answer: slithy)
    What did they do? (Answer: gyre and gimble)
    Where? (Answer: in the wabe)
    Who or what were mimsy? (Answer: the borogoves)
    What did the mome raths do? (Answer: outgrabe)

    Rationale: At first glance students will say ‘I can’t do this!’ but after focusing a little they will realise that they can. The lesson is that it is possible to decode things and make some sense out of them through our knowledge of the structure of language. Students will learn that they do not need to understand every word, and that if they really want to understand a word they need to look at it in context.

    3. What’s the purpose? – One

    Choose a number of short texts; they could be just a couple of words long. Put students in pairs and give them a copy of the texts. Ask them to read each one and answer the following questions:

    Where would you read / see such a text?
    What kind of text is it?
    What does it mean?
    What are the key words or phrases?


    Texts could be things like:

    • Wash with similar colours at 40ºC.
    • No parking!
    • Gone to lunch. Back in 20!
    • Dear Sir / Madam, I’m writing to you to complain about…
    • Add the two eggs and stir until the mixture is smooth.
    Rationale: Identifying the type of text and where you might read it supplies the reader with some context. From this context the reader can guess what some of the text will be about – top-down – and then looking more closely at the words can fine-tune the meaning – bottom-up. This mirrors what we do in real life when we read such texts.

    4. What’s the purpose? – Two

    Choose three different text types such as a timetable, a set of instructions for an electrical appliance like an iron, hairdryer, DVD recorder and a letter. Give the students the three texts and ask them to work in pairs and answer the following questions:

    What kind of text is it?
    Who wrote it and why (purpose)?
    How can you tell what kind of text it is?
    How would you read each text?

    Rationale: This is an extended version of the previous activity. In addition to the aims from the last activity there is also the added angle of thinking how they (the student) would read the text. Thinking about reading, rather than just answering comprehension questions, enables our students to become better readers and, ultimately, to choose the best strategies for reading different types of text.

    [HR][/HR]
    Anchor Point:7

    Further reading


    I would like to recommend two books for anyone interested in exploring reading further. The first of these is Teaching Reading Skills, Christine Nuttall, Macmillan (2005) and the second is Beyond the Sentence, Scott Thornbury, also Macmillan (2005). Christine’s book is clear and really made me start thinking more about reading and what I actually did in the classroom. Scott’s book made me start seeing texts in a new light and think of new ways of exploring reading texts
     
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    Tsaphah

    Tsaphah Experienced Member

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    Hi Utuna,
    Absolutely wonderful article. I copied it and will share it with those who will also like it.
    I just wish that more people would take the time to read this. I also give you credit for the information. :cool:

     
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    Tsaphah

    Tsaphah Experienced Member

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    The Watchman’s Post, near the center of the Home page has an article titled THE WALL MUST FALL. Robert quotes a scripture in Ezekiel 13:3-4, “Woe to the stupid prophets, who follow their own spirit, when they have seen nothing! O Israel, your prophets have become like foxes among the ruins.†(NWT)

    Me, Being Me, had to look up the original Hebrew to better understand the use of a euphemism, to liken the false prophets as “foxesâ€. The Hebrew word is Shuw`al (shoo-awl), meaning a fox, a burrower, from the root sho’ al, meaning to hollow out. But there is more to a fox than just burrowing a den.

    Adam Clarke’s commentary says: “The cunning of the fox in obtaining his prey has been long proverbial. These false prophets are represented as the foxes who, having got their prey by great subtlety, run to the desert to hide both themselves and it. So the false prophets, when the event did not answer to their prediction, got out of the way, that they might not be overwhelmed with the reproaches and indignation of the people.â€

    There is also the saying:
    “Sly as a fox†has been a traditional saying for hundreds of years. It means that someone is particularly crafty or tricky. If you're as sly as a fox, you are experienced and cunning and can usually get whatever you want, sometimes by underhanded means.

    One of the origins of the phrase comes from the 19th century book, Reynard the Fox, in which the main character was a fox who was known as a charismatic trickster and would often cause trouble within the kingdom. He was always able to cause trouble but get out of it in the end, Other origins point to the animal kingdom in which fox have displayed sly tactics in hunting and luring their prey.

    1. Somebody who can put you in a tricky situation without you noticing.

    2. Somebody who can make your plans backfire.

    3. An incredibly stealthy person.

    sly (adj.)
    c. 1200, "skillful, clever, dexterous," from Old Norse sloegr "cunning, crafty, sly," from Proto-Germanic *slogis (cognates: Low German slu "cunning, sly," German schlau), probably from base *slak- "to strike, hit" (see slay (v.)), with an original notion of "able to hit." Compare German verschlagen "cunning, crafty, sly," schlagfertig "quick-witted," literally "strike-ready," from schlagen "to strike." A non-pejorative use of the word lingered in northern English dialect until 20c. On the sly "in secret" is recorded from 1812. Sly-boots "a seeming Silly, but subtil Fellow" is in the 1700 "Dictionary of the Canting Crew." (Online Etymology)

    Robert applies this portion of Ezekiel to the WTB&TS Governing Body. I had mentioned the new album by Pink Floyd, titled "The Wall.", to one of the elders. Back in 1979 I was told to not listen to “that kind of musicâ€. Really?? “Yes, it is not the wholesome kind that is appropriate for Jehovah’s people.†Really?? Do you even know what it is about? “No! I can’t waste my time with that! I use that time for field service.†Hmmmm.

    So, as the song from Pink Floyd says; “Tear down the Wall!†(Repeat endlessly)
    :cool:;);)
     
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    SingleCell

    SingleCell Experienced Member

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    WELCOME my son, WELCOME to the MACHINEEEEEEEE

    Thanks T, it just 'fits'.
     
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    SingleCell

    SingleCell Experienced Member

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    .. and by "fits" I'm referencing your word research - foxes, et al.
     
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    Tsaphah

    Tsaphah Experienced Member

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    Now that I've stopped laughing, “What did you dream? It's alright we told you what to dream.â€￾
    And, “Meet the new boss. Same as the old boss.
    â€￾ :cool:

     

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